Department of Nuclear Medicine
Head of the Department - Michal Baramia
Hybrid positron emission / computed tomography (PET / CT) scans made it possible to combine metabolic and anatomical data. The introduction of this technology has greatly influenced the development of various medical disciplines, including neurology and cardiology, although it has occupied a special place in the field of oncology. Today, positron emission tomography (PET / CT) research is used worldwide in the management of oncological diseases. To determine the exact anatomical localization of metabolic activity, positron emission tomography is indispensable for assessing the onset, retention and response to oncological diseases. In about 30% of cases, PET / CT changes the treatment tactics of cancer patients.
The principle of positron emission tomography is the enhanced metabolism of glucose in tumor cells and tissues compared to healthy tissues. Radioactive drug - Fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F (has physical half-life of 110 minutes) is characterized by the release of positrons as a result of radioactive decay. Gamma-rays emitted by the interaction of positrons with electrons are detected by scanner detectors, which receive information about the metabolic activity of various areas of the body, which helps to detect tumor cells and tissues. That is why PET research has found wide application in oncology. At present, fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical for pet research worldwide.
Indications for Positron Emission exams (PET / CT):
- Cancer staging (determining the degree of spread of cancer);
- Determine cancer recurrence and / or continuous growth when clinical and anatomical data are negative (e.g. elevated tumor markers);
- Identification of primary foci during metastatic process and / or paraneoplastic syndrome;
- Differentiation of benign / malignant tumors;
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, combination);
- Selection of the best localization for biopsy;
- Surgical planning;
- Schedule radiation therapy.
Head of the Direction of Radionuclide Diagnosis - Tatia Aleksishvili
Department of Nuclear Medicine of F. Todua Medical Center is equipped with 2 state-of-the-art SIEMENS devices - one-photon emission system - Symbia Intevo SPECT / CT and one-photon emission system -Symbia Evo.
These latest technologies allow to conduct all modern diagnostic exams at the international level with much greater accuracy. The device simplifies diagnostic procedures for patients because it allows exams to be performed quickly and with minimal irradiation.
Radionuclide studies occupy one of the most important and irreplaceable places in the assessment of organ functions.
The Department of Radionuclide Diagnostics carries out:
- Bone scintigraphy in cancer patients (to detect metastatic lesions) and in patients with trauma (to diagnose osteomyelitis of bones and dislocation of the prosthesis)
- Thyroid scintigraphy (to determine the cause of thyrotoxicosis. Examination of functional state of the thyroid gland - to identify areas of hyper and / or hypo fixation)
- Thyroid nodule scintigraphy (to detect thyroid adenoma)
- Dynamic and cortical nephroscintigraphy of the kidneys (to assess the relative functional state of the kidneys and GFR to identify congenital renal anomalies, to diagnose renal artery stenosis and vasorenal hypertension). For the detection of kidney injury, scarring, infectious diseases of the urinary tract and urinary bladder-urinary reflux, it is practically indispensable in the diagnosis of obstructive kidney disease)
- Gastric scintigraphy (evaluation of the motor-evacuation function of the stomach. The so-called gastric emptying scan)
- Scintigraphy of Meckel's diverticulum (the most reliable method for detecting the most common congenital diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, to determine the cause of melena disease in young children)
- Scintigraphy examination of the lungs (to evaluate the perfusion and ventilation function)
- Brain scintigraphy (for differential diagnosis of blood supply, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's and dementia)
- Myocardial scintigraphy (to diagnose myocardial blood supply)
- Scintigraphy of the lymphatic system (to evaluate the patency rates of the lymphatic ducts)
- Scintigraphy of the liver and biliary system (differential diagnosis of liver masses and diagnosis of biliary tract).